[Resource Topic] 2024/979: Volatile and Persistent Memory for zkSNARKs via Algebraic Interactive Proofs

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Volatile and Persistent Memory for zkSNARKs via Algebraic Interactive Proofs

Authors: Alex Ozdemir, Evan Laufer, Dan Boneh


In verifiable outsourcing, an untrusted server runs an expensive computation and produces a succinct proof (called a SNARK) of the results. In many scenarios, the computation accesses a RAM that the server maintains a commitment to (persistent RAM) or that is initially zero (volatile RAM). But, SNARKs for such scenarios are limited by the high overheads associated with existing techniques for RAM checking. We develop new proofs about volatile, persistent, and sparse persistent RAM that reduce SNARK proving times. Our results include both asymptotic and concrete improvements—including a proving time reduction of up to 51.3$\times$ for persistent RAM. Along the way, we apply two tools that may be of independent interest. First, we generalize an existing construction to convert any algebraic interactive proof (AIP) into a SNARK. An AIP is a public-coin, non-succinct, interactive proof with a verifier that is an arithmetic circuit. Second, we apply Bézout’s identity for polynomials to construct new AIPs for uniqueness and disjointness. These are useful for showing the independence of accesses to different addresses.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/979

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