[Resource Topic] 2024/960: Designs for practical SHE schemes based on Ring-LWR

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Designs for practical SHE schemes based on Ring-LWR

Authors: Madalina Bolboceanu, Anamaria Costache, Erin Hales, Rachel Player, Miruna Rosca, Radu Titiu


The Learning with Errors problem (LWE) and its variants are among the most popular assumptions underlying lattice-based cryptography. The Learning with Rounding problem (LWR) can be thought of as a deterministic variant of LWE. While lattice-based cryptography is known to enable many advanced constructions, constructing Fully Homomorphic Encryption schemes based on LWR remains an under-explored part of the literature. In this work, we present a thorough study of Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption schemes based on Ring-LWR that are the analogue of the Ring-LWE-based BFV scheme. Our main contribution is to present and analyse two new schemes, in the LPR and Regev paradigms. The Regev-type scheme can be seen as a generalisation of the only prior work in this direction (Costache-Smart, 2017). Both our schemes present several im- provements compared to this prior work, and in particular we resolve the “tangled modulus” issue in the Costache-Smart scheme that led to unmanageable noise growth. Our schemes inherit the many benefits of being based on LWR, including ease of implementation, avoiding the need for expensive Gaussian sampling, improved resistance to side channels, suitability for hardware, and improved ciphertext size. Indeed, we give a detailed comparison showing that the LPR and Regev-type schemes marginally outperform the BFV scheme in terms of ciphertext size. Moreover, we show that both our schemes support RNS variants, which would make their practical performance competitive with BFV.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/960

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