[Resource Topic] 2024/943: Dual Polynomial Commitment Schemes and Applications to Commit-and-Prove SNARKs

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Dual Polynomial Commitment Schemes and Applications to Commit-and-Prove SNARKs

Authors: Chaya Ganesh, Vineet Nair, Ashish Sharma


We introduce a primitive called a dual polynomial commitment scheme that allows linking together a witness committed to using a univariate polynomial commitment scheme with a witness inside a multilinear polynomial commitment scheme. This yields commit-and-prove (CP) SNARKs with the flexibility of going back and forth between univariate and multilinear encodings of witnesses. This is in contrast to existing CP frameworks that assume compatible polynomial commitment schemes between different component proofs systems. In addition to application to CP, we also show that our notion yields a version of Spartan with better proof size and verification complexity, at the cost of a more expensive prover.

We achieve this via a combination of the following technical contributions: (i) we construct a new univariate commitment scheme in the updatable SRS setting that has better prover complexity than KZG (ii) we construct a new multilinear commitment scheme in the updatable setting that is compatible for linking with our univariate scheme (iii) we construct an argument of knowledge to prove a given linear relationship between two witnesses committed using a two-tiered commitment scheme (Pedersen+AFG) using Dory as a black-box. These constructions are of independent interest.

We implement our commitment schemes and report on performance. We also implement the version of Spartan with our dual polynomial commitment scheme and demonstrate that it outperforms Spartan in proof size and verification complexity.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/943

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