[Resource Topic] 2024/920: Leveraging Small Message Spaces for CCA1 Security in Additively Homomorphic and BGN-type Encryption

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Leveraging Small Message Spaces for CCA1 Security in Additively Homomorphic and BGN-type Encryption

Authors: Benoit Libert


We show that the smallness of message spaces can be used as a checksum allowing to hedge against CCA1 attacks in additively homomorphic encryption schemes. We first show that the additively homomorphic variant of Damgård’s Elgamal provides IND-CCA1 security under the standard DDH assumption. Earlier proofs either required non-standard assumptions or only applied to hybrid versions of Damgård’s Elgamal, which are not additively homomorphic. Our security proof builds on hash proof systems and exploits the fact that encrypted messages must be contained in a polynomial-size interval in order to enable decryption. With 3 group elements per ciphertext, this positions Damgård’s Elgamal as the most efficient/compact DDH-based additively homomorphic CCA1 cryptosystem. Under the same assumption, the best candidate so far was the lite Cramer-Shoup cryptosystem, where ciphertexts consist of 4 group elements. We extend this observation to build an IND-CCA1 variant of the Boneh-Goh-Nissim encryption scheme, which allows evaluating 2-DNF formulas on encrypted data. By computing tensor products of Damgård’s Elgamal ciphertexts, we obtain product ciphertexts consisting of 9 group elements (instead of 16 elements if we were tensoring lite Cramer-Shoup ciphertexts) in the target group of a bilinear map. Using similar ideas, we also obtain a CCA1 variant of the Elgamal-Paillier cryptosystem by forcing \lambda plaintext bits to be zeroes, which yields CCA1 security almost for free. In particular, the message space remains exponentially large and ciphertexts are as short as in the IND-CPA scheme. We finally adapt the technique to the Castagnos-Laguillaumie system.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/920

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