[Resource Topic] 2024/912: Quantum Evolving Secret Sharing for General Access Structures

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Quantum Evolving Secret Sharing for General Access Structures

Authors: Efrat Cohen, Anat Paskin-Cherniavsky


In the useful and well studied model of secret-sharing schemes, there are n parties and a dealer, which holds a secret. The dealer applies some randomized algorithm to the secret, resulting in n strings, called shares; it gives the i'th share to the i'th party. There are two requirements. (1) correctness: some predefined subsets of the parties can jointly reconstruct the secret from their shares, and (2) security: any other set gets no information on the secret. The collection of predefined qualified sets is called an access structure (AS).

This model assumes that the number of parties is known when preparing the shares and giving the shares to the parties; furthermore, the sharing algorithm and the share size are determined by the number of parties, e.g. in the best-known
secret-sharing scheme for an arbitrary n-party access structure the share size is 1.5^{n} by Appelbaum and Nir.

The assumption that the number of parties is known in advance is problematic in many scenarios. Of course, one can take some upper bound on the number of parties. On one hand, if this bound is big, then the share size will be large even if only few parties actually participate in the scheme. On the other hand, if this bound is small, then there is a risk that too many parties will arrive and no further shares can be produced; this will require an expensive re-sharing of the secret and updating all shares (which can be impossible if some parties are temporally off-line). Thus, we need to consider models with an unbounded number of parties.

To address these concrens, Komargodski, Naor, and Yogev defined \emph{evolving secret-sharing schemes} with an unbounded number of parties. In a nutshell, evolving AS’s are defined as a monotone
collection of finite qualified sets, such that at any time t a set A\subseteq [t] is either qualified or not, depending only on A itself, and not on t (a `global’ monotonicity notion).

Quantum secret sharing (QSS) in the standard n-party setting, where the secret is an arbitrary quantum state (say, qbit), rather than classical data. In face of recent advancements in quantum computing, this is a natural notion to consider, and has been studied before.

In this work, we explore the natural notion of quantum evolving secret sharing (QESS). While this notion has been studied by Samadder 20’, we make several new contributions.
(1) The notion of QESS was only implicit in the above work. We formalize this notion (as well as AS’s for which it is applicable), and in particular argue that the variant implied by the above work did not require global monotonicity' of the AS, which was the standard in the evolving secret sharing literature, and appears to be useful for QESS as well. (2) Discuss the applicability and limitations of the notion in the quantum setting that follow from the no-cloning theorem, and make its usability more limited. Yet, we argue that fundamental advantages of the evovling setting, such as keeping parties' shares independent of the total number of parties that arrive can be mantainted in the quantum setting. (3) We characterize the AS's ammenable to construction of QSSS - so called no cloning’ evolving AS’s, and point out that this class is not severly restricted relatively to the class of all evolving AS’s. On the positive side, our construction combines the compiler of [Smith 00’] with ideas of hybrid secret sharing of [Goyal et. al 23’], to obtain a construction with share size comparable to the best classical linear share complexity of the scheme.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/912

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