[Resource Topic] 2024/273: Information-Theoretic Homomorphic Encryption and 2-Party Computation

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Information-Theoretic Homomorphic Encryption and 2-Party Computation

Authors: Jonathan Trostle


Homomorphic encryption has been an active area of research since Gentry’s breakthrough results on fully homomorphic encryption.
We present secret key somewhat homomorphic schemes where client privacy is information-theoretic (server can be computationally unbounded). As the group order in our schemes gets larger, entropy approaches max-
imal entropy (perfect security). Our basic scheme is additive somewhat homomorphic. In one scheme, the server handles circuit multiplication gates by returning the mulitiplicands to the client which does the
multiplication and sends back the encrypted product. We give a 2-party protocol that also incorporates server inputs where the client privacy is information-theoretic. Server privacy is not information-theoretic, but rather depends on hardness of the subset sum problem. Correctness for the server in the malicious model can be verified by a 3rd party where the client and server privacy are information-theoretically protected from
the verifier. Scaling the 2PC protocol via separate encryption parameters for smaller subcircuits allows the ciphertext size to grow logarithmically as circuit size grows.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/273

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