[Resource Topic] 2024/228: On the Untapped Potential of the Quantum FLT-based Inversion

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On the Untapped Potential of the Quantum FLT-based Inversion

Authors: Ren Taguchi, Atsushi Takayasu


Thus far, several papers estimated concrete quantum resources of Shor’s algorithm for solving a binary elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem. In particular, the complexity of computing quantum inversions over a binary field F2n is dominant when running the algorithm, where n is a degree of a binary elliptic curve. There are two major methods for quantum inversion, i.e., the quantum GCD-based inversion and the quantum FLT-based inversion. Among them, the latter method is known to require more qubits; however, the latter one is valuable since it requires much fewer Toffoli gates and less depth. When n = 571, Kim-Hong’s quantum GCD-based inversion algorithm (Quantum Information Processing 2023) and Taguchi-Takayasu’s quantum FLT-based inversion algorithm (CT-RSA 2023) require 3, 473 qubits and 8, 566 qubits, respectively. In contrast, for the same n = 571, the latter algorithm requires only 2.3% of Toffoli gates and 84% of depth compared to the former one. In this paper, we modify Taguchi-Takayasu’s quantum FLT-based inversion algorithm to reduce the required qubits. While Taguchi-Takayasu’s FLT-based inversion algorithm takes an addition chain for n−1 as input and computes a sequence whose number is the same as the length of the chain, our proposed algorithm employs an uncomputation step and stores a shorter one. As a result, our proposed algorithm requires only 3, 998 qubits for n = 571, which is only 15% more than Kim-Hong’s GCD-based inversion algorithm. Furthermore, our proposed algorithm preserves the advantage of FLT-based inversion since it requires only 3.7% of Toffoli gates and 77% of depth compared to Kim-Hong’s GCD-based inversion algorithm for n = 571.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/228

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