[Resource Topic] 2024/172: Relaxed Functional Bootstrapping: A New Perspective on BGV/BFV Bootstrapping

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Relaxed Functional Bootstrapping: A New Perspective on BGV/BFV Bootstrapping

Authors: Zeyu Liu, Yunhao Wang


BGV and BFV are among the most widely used fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes, supporting evaluations over a finite field. To evaluate a circuit with arbitrary depth, bootstrapping is needed. However, despite the recent progress, bootstrapping of BGV/BFV still remains relatively impractical, compared to other FHE schemes.

In this work, we inspect the BGV/BFV bootstrapping procedure from a different angle. We provide a generalized bootstrapping definition that relaxes the correctness requirement of regular bootstrapping, allowing constructions that support only certain kinds of circuits with arbitrary depth. In addition, our definition captures a form of functional bootstrapping. In other words, the output encrypts a function evaluation of the input instead of the input itself.

Under this new definition, we provide a bootstrapping procedure supporting different types of functions. Our construction is 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art BGV/BFV bootstrapping algorithms, depending on the evaluated function.

Of independent interest, we show that our technique can be used to improve the batched FHEW/TFHE bootstrapping construction introduced by Liu and Wang (Asiacrypt 2023). Our optimization provides a speed-up of 6x in latency and 3x in throughput for batched binary gate bootstrapping and a plaintext-space-dependent speed-up for batched functional bootstrapping with plaintext space smaller than \mathbb{Z}_{512}.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/172

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