Welcome to the resource topic for
**2024/1713**

**Title:**

Universally Composable Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge from Sigma Protocols via a New Straight-line Compiler

**Authors:**
Megan Chen, Pousali Dey, Chaya Ganesh, Pratyay Mukherjee, Pratik Sarkar, Swagata Sasmal

**Abstract:**

Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZK) are essential building blocks in threshold cryptosystems like multiparty signatures, distributed key generation, and verifiable secret sharing, allowing parties to prove correct behavior without revealing secrets. Furthermore, universally composable (UC) NIZKs enable seamless composition in the larger cryptosystems. A popular way to construct NIZKs is to compile interactive protocols using the Fiat-Shamir transform. Unfortunately, Fiat-Shamir transformed NIZK requires rewinding the adversary and is not \textit{straight-line extractable}, making it at odds with UC. Using Fischlinâ€™s transform gives straight-line extractability, but at the expense of many repetitions of the underlying protocol leading to poor concrete efficiency and difficulty in setting parameters.

In this work, we propose a simple new transform that compiles a Sigma protocol for an algebraic relation into a UC-NIZK protocol \textit{without any overheads of repetition}.

```
- Given a Sigma protocol for proving m algebraic statements over n witnesses, we construct a compiler to transform it into a $\textit{straight-line extractable}$ protocol using an additively homomorphic encryption scheme AHE. Our prover executes the Sigma protocol's prover once and computes 2n encryptions. The verification process involves running the Sigma protocol verifier once and then computing n encryptions, which are homomorphically verified against the prover generated encryptions.
- We apply the Fiat-Shamir transform to the above straight-line extractable Sigma protocol to obtain a UC-NIZK. We instantiate AHE using class group-based encryption where the public key of the encryption scheme is obliviously sampled using a suitable hash function. This yields a UC-NIZK protocol in the random oracle model.
```

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/1713

See all topics related to this paper.

Feel free to post resources that are related to this paper below.

**Example resources include:**
implementations, explanation materials, talks, slides, links to previous discussions on other websites.

For more information, see the rules for Resource Topics .