Welcome to the resource topic for
**2024/1661**

**Title:**

zkFFT: Extending Halo2 with Vector Commitments & More

**Authors:**
Aram Jivanyan, Gohar Hovhannisyan, Hayk Hovhannisyan, Nerses Asaturyan

**Abstract:**

This paper introduces zkFFT, a novel zero-knowledge argument designed to efficiently generate proofs for FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) relations. Our approach enables the verification that one committed vector is the FFT of another, addressing an efficiency need in general-purpose non-interactive zero-knowledge proof systems where the proof relation utilizes vector commitments inputs.

We present a concrete enhancement to the Halo2 proving system, demonstrating how zkFFT optimizes proofs in scenarios where the proof relation includes one or more vector commitments. Specifically, zkFFT incorporates streamlined logic within Halo2 and similar systems, augmenting proof and verification complexity by only O(\text{log}N), where N is the vector size. This represents a substantial improvement over conventional approach, which often necessitates specific circuit extensions to validate the integrity of vector commitments and their corresponding private values in the arithmetic framework of the proof relation. The proposed zkFFT method supports multiple vector commitments with only a logarithmic increase in extension costs, making it highly scalable. This capability is pivotal for practical applications involving multiple pre-committed values within proof statements.

Apart from Halo2, our technique can be adapted to any other zero-knowledge proof system that relies on arithmetization, where each column is treated as an evaluation of a polynomial over a specified domain, computes this polynomial via FFT, and subsequently commits to the resulting polynomial using a polynomial commitment scheme based on inner-product arguments. Along with efficient lookup and permutation arguments, zkFFT will streamline and significantly optimize the generation of zero-knowledge proofs for arbitrary relations.

Beyond the applications in augmenting zero-knowledge proof systems, we believe that the formalized zkFFT argument can be of independent interest.

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/1661

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