Welcome to the resource topic for
**2024/1316**

**Title:**

Generalized Triangular Dynamical System: An Algebraic System for Constructing Cryptographic Permutations over Finite Fields

**Authors:**
Arnab Roy, Matthias Johann Steiner

**Abstract:**

In recent years a new class of symmetric-key primitives over \mathbb{F}_p that are essential to Multi-Party Computation and Zero-Knowledge Proofs based protocols has emerged. Towards improving the efficiency of such primitives, a number of new block ciphers and hash functions over \mathbb{F}_p were proposed. These new primitives also showed that following alternative design strategies to the classical Substitution-Permutation Network (SPN) and Feistel Networks leads to more efficient cipher and hash function designs over \mathbb{F}_p specifically for large odd primes p.

In view of these efforts, in this work we build an \emph{algebraic framework} that allows the systematic exploration of viable and efficient design strategies for constructing symmetric-key (iterative) permutations over \mathbb{F}_p. We first identify iterative polynomial dynamical systems over finite fields as the central building block of almost all block cipher design strategies. We propose a generalized triangular polynomial dynamical system (GTDS), and based on the GTDS we provide a generic definition of an iterative (keyed) permutation over \mathbb{F}_p^n.

Our GTDS-based generic definition is able to describe the three most well-known design strategies, namely SPNs, Feistel networks (FN) and Lai–Massey (LM). Consequently, the block ciphers that are constructed following these design strategies can also be instantiated from our generic definition. Moreover, we find that the recently proposed \texttt{Griffin} design, which neither follows the Feistel nor the SPN design, can be described using the generic GTDS-based definition. We also show that a new generalized Lai–Massey construction can be instantiated from the GTDS-based definition. The latter results confirm that our GTDS-based definition is able to instantiate cryptographic permutations that are beyond SPN, FN and LM based.

We further provide generic (security) analysis of the GTDS including an upper bound on the differential uniformity and the correlation.

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/1316

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