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A Low-Latency High-Order Arithmetic to Boolean Masking Conversion
Authors: Jiangxue Liu, Cankun Zhao, Shuohang Peng, Bohan Yang, Hang Zhao, Xiangdong Han, Min Zhu, Shaojun Wei, Leibo LiuAbstract:
Masking, an effective countermeasure against side-channel attacks, is commonly applied in modern cryptographic implementations. Considering cryptographic algorithms that utilize both Boolean and arithmetic masking, the conversion algorithm between arithmetic masking and Boolean masking is required. Conventional high-order arithmetic masking to Boolean masking conversion algorithms based on Boolean circuits suffer from performance overhead, especially in terms of hardware implementation. In this work, we analyze high latency for the conversion and propose an improved high-order A2B conversion algorithm. For the conversion of 16-bit variables, the hardware latency can be reduced by 47% in the best scenario. For the case study of second-order 32-bit conversion, the implementation results show that the improved scheme reduces the clock cycle latency by 42% in hardware and achieves a 30% speed performance improvement in software. Theoretically, a security proof of arbitrary order is provided for the proposed high-order A2B conversion. Experimental validations are performed to verify the second-order DPA resistance of second-order implementation. The Test Vector Leakage Assessment does not observe side-channel leakage for hardware and software implementations.
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