Welcome to the resource topic for
**2024/003**

**Title:**

Simple Soundness Proofs

**Authors:**
Alex Kampa

**Abstract:**

We present a general method to simplify soundness proofs under certain conditions. Given an adversary \mathcal{A} able to break a scheme S with non-negligible probability t, we define the concept of \textit{trace} of a \textit{winning configuration}, which is already implicitly used in soundness proofs. If a scheme can be constructed that (1) takes a random configuration e, being the inputs and execution environment of \mathcal{A}, (2) “guesses” a trace, (3) modifies e based on its guess so that the modified configuration e' is statistically indistinguishable from the original one, (4) is then able to execute \mathcal{A} correctly under the condition that e' is a winning configuration and that B's guess of the trace was correct, and finally (5) that during its execution \mathcal{A} is unable extract any information about B's guess, then the probability of B winning can be expressed as a simple function of t and the bit-length of the trace, namely \frac{t}{2^m}. Soundness then results if 2^m is polynomial in the security parameter.

To illustrate the concept, a concrete application of this method to a simple binary voting scheme is then described in detail.

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/003

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