[Resource Topic] 2023/755: The security of Kyber's FO-transform

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The security of Kyber’s FO-transform

Authors: Manuel Barbosa, Andreas Hülsing


In this short note we give another direct proof for the variant of the FO transform used by Kyber in the QROM. At PKC’23 Maram & Xagawa gave the first direct proof which does not require the indirection via FO with explicit rejection, thereby avoiding either a non-tight bound, or the necessity to analyze the failure probability in a new setting. However, on the downside their proof produces a bound that incurs an additive collision bound term. We explore a different approach for a direct proof, which results in a simpler argument closer to prior proofs, but a slightly worse bound.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/755

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