[Resource Topic] 2023/750: BAKSHEESH: Similar Yet Different From GIFT

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BAKSHEESH: Similar Yet Different From GIFT

Authors: Anubhab Baksi, Jakub Breier, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Tomáš Gerlich, Sylvain Guilley, Naina Gupta, Kai Hu, Takanori Isobe, Arpan Jati, Petr Jedlicka, Hyunjun Kim, Fukang Liu, Zdeněk Martinásek, Kosei Sakamoto, Hwajeong Seo, Rentaro Shiba, Ritu Ranjan Shrivastwa


We propose a lightweight block cipher named BAKSHEESH, which follows up on the popular cipher GIFT-128 (CHES’17). BAKSHEESH runs for 35 rounds, which is 12.50 percent smaller compared to GIFT-128 (runs for 40 rounds) while maintaining the same security claims against the classical attacks.

The crux of BAKSHEESH is to use a 4-bit SBox that has a non-trivial Linear Structure (LS). An SBox with one or more non-trivial LS has not been used in a cipher construction until DEFAULT (Asiacrypt’21). DEFAULT is pitched to have inherent protection against the Differential Fault Attack (DFA), thanks to its SBox having 3 non-trivial LS. BAKSHEESH, however, uses an SBox with only 1 non-trivial LS; and is a traditional cipher just like GIFT-128.

The SBox requires a low number of AND gates, making BAKSHEESH suitable for side-channel countermeasures (when compared to GIFT-128) and other niche applications. Indeed, our study on the cost of the threshold implementation shows that BAKSHEESH offers a few-fold advantage over other lightweight ciphers. The design is not much deviated from its predecessor (GIFT-128), thereby allowing for easy implementation (such as fix-slicing in software). However, BAKSHEESH opts for the full-round key XOR, compared to the half-round key XOR in GIFT.

Thus, when taking everything into account, we show how a cipher construction can benefit from the unique vantage point of using 1 LS SBox, by combining the state-of-the-art progress in classical cryptanalysis and protection against device-dependent attacks. We, therefore, create a new paradigm of lightweight ciphers, by adequate deliberation on the design choice, and solidify it with appropriate security analysis and ample implementation/benchmark.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/750

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