[Resource Topic] 2023/706: Two-Message Authenticated Key Exchange from Public-Key Encryption

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Two-Message Authenticated Key Exchange from Public-Key Encryption

Authors: You Lyu, Shengli Liu


In two-message authenticated key exchange (AKE), it is necessary for the initiator to keep a round state after sending the first round-message, because he/she has to derive his/her session key after receiving the second round-message. Up to now almost all two-message AKEs constructed from public-key encryption (PKE) only achieve weak security which does not allow the adversary obtaining the round state. How to support state reveal to obtain a better security called IND-AA security has been an open problem proposed by Hövelmann et al. (PKC 2020).

In this paper, we solve the open problem with a generic construction of two-message AKE from any CCA-secure Tagged Key Encapsulation Mechanism (TKEM). Our AKE supports state reveal and achieves IND-AA security. Given the fact that CCA-secure public-key encryption (PKE) implies CCA-secure TKEM, our AKE can be constructed from any CCA-secure PKE with proper message space. The abundant choices for CCA-secure PKE schemes lead to many IND-AA secure AKE schemes in the standard model. Moreover, following the online-extractability technique in recent work by Don et al. (Eurocrypt 2022), we can extend the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation to transform any CPA-secure PKE into a CCA-secure Tagged KEM in the QROM model. Therefore, we obtain the first generic construction of IND-AA secure two-message AKE from CPA-secure PKE in the QROM model. This construction does not need any signature scheme, and this result is especially helpful in the post-quantum world, since the current quantum-secure PKE schemes are much more efficient than their signature counterparts.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/706

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