[Resource Topic] 2023/514: Black-Box Reusable NISC with Random Oracles

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Black-Box Reusable NISC with Random Oracles

Authors: Yuval Ishai, Dakshita Khurana, Amit Sahai, Akshayaram Srinivasan


We revisit the problem of {\em reusable} non-interactive secure computation (NISC). A standard NISC protocol for a sender-receiver functionality f enables the receiver to encrypt its input x such that any sender, on input y, can send back a message revealing only f(x,y). Security should hold even when either party can be malicious. A {\em reusable} NISC protocol has the additional feature that the receiver’s message can be safely reused for computing multiple outputs f(x,y_i). Here security should hold even when a malicious sender can learn partial information about the honest receiver’s outputs in each session.

We present the first reusable NISC protocol for general functions f that only makes a {\em black-box} use of any two-message oblivious transfer protocol, along with a random oracle. All previous reusable NISC protocols either made a non-black-box use of cryptographic primitives (Cachin et al., ICALP 2002) or alternatively required a stronger arithmetic variant of oblivious transfer and were restricted to f in \mathsf{NC}^1 or similar classes (Chase et al., Crypto 2019). Our result is obtained via a general compiler from standard NISC to reusable NISC that makes use of special type of honest-majority protocols for secure multiparty computation.

Finally, we extend the above main result to reusable {\em two-sided} NISC, in which two parties can encrypt their inputs in the first round and then reveal different functions of their inputs in multiple sessions. This extension either requires an additional (black-box) use of additively homomorphic commitment or alternatively requires the parties to maintain a state between sessions.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/514

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