[Resource Topic] 2023/506: Energy Consumption Evaluation of Post-Quantum TLS 1.3 for Resource-Constrained Embedded Devices

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Energy Consumption Evaluation of Post-Quantum TLS 1.3 for Resource-Constrained Embedded Devices

Authors: George Tasopoulos, Charis Dimopoulos, Apostolos P. Fournaris, Raymond K. Zhao, Amin Sakzad, Ron Steinfeld


Post-Quantum cryptography (PQC), in the past few years, constitutes the main driving force of the quantum resistance transition for security primitives, protocols and tools. TLS is one of the widely used security protocols that needs to be made quantum safe. However, PQC algorithms TLS integration introduce various implementation overheads compared to traditional TLS that in battery powered embedded devices with constrained resources, cannot be overlooked. While there exist several works, evaluating the PQ TLS execution time overhead in embedded systems there are only a few that explore the PQ TLS energy consumption cost. In this paper, a thorough power/energy consumption evaluation and analysis of PQ TLS 1.3 embedded system implementation has been made. A WolfSSL PQ TLS 1.3 custom implementation is used that integrates all the NIST PQC algorithms selected for standardization as well as those evaluated in NIST Round 4. The BSI recommendations have also been included. The various PQ TLS versions are deployed in a STM Nucleo evaluation board under a mutual and a unilateral client-server authentication scenario. The power and energy consumption collected results are analyzed in detail. The performed comparisons and overall analysis provide very interesting results indicating that the choice of the PQC algorithm TLS 1.3 combination to be deployed on an embedded system may be very different depending on the device use as an authenticated or not authenticated, client or server. Also, the results indicate that in some cases, PQ TLS 1.3 implementations can be equally or more energy consumption efficient compared to traditional TLS 1.3.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/506

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