[Resource Topic] 2023/413: Accelerating HE Operations from Key Decomposition Technique

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Accelerating HE Operations from Key Decomposition Technique

Authors: Miran Kim, Dongwon Lee, Jinyeong Seo, Yongsoo Song


Lattice-based homomorphic encryption (HE) schemes are based on the noisy encryption technique, where plaintexts are masked with some random noise for security. Recent advanced HE schemes rely on a decomposition technique to manage the growth of noise, which involves a conversion of a ciphertext entry into a short vector followed by multiplication with an evaluation key. Prior to this work, the decomposition procedure turns out to be the most time-consuming part, as it requires discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) over the base ring for efficient polynomial arithmetic. In this paper, an expensive decomposition operation over a large modulus is replaced with relatively cheap operations over a ring of integers with a small bound. Notably, the cost of DFTs is reduced from quadratic to linear with the level of a ciphertext without any extra noise growth. We demonstrate the implication of our approach by applying it to the key-switching procedure. Our experiments show that the new key-switching method achieves a speedup of 1.2–2.3 or 2.1–3.3 times over the previous method, when the dimension of a base ring is 2^{15} or 2^{16}, respectively.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/413

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