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**2023/282**

**Title:**

Quantum trapdoor functions from classical one-way functions

**Authors:**
Andrea Coladangelo

**Abstract:**

We introduce the notion of a quantum trapdoor function. This is an efficiently computable unitary that takes as input a “public” quantum state and a classical string x, and outputs a quantum state. This map is such that (i) it is hard to invert, in the sense that it is hard to recover x given the output state (and many copies of the public state), and (ii) there is a classical trapdoor that allows efficient inversion. We show that a quantum trapdoor function can be constructed from any quantum-secure one-way function. A direct consequence of this result is that, assuming just the existence of quantum-secure one-way functions, there exist: (i) a public-key encryption scheme with a quantum public key, and (ii) a two-message key-exchange protocol, assuming an appropriate notion of a quantum authenticated channel.

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/282

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