[Resource Topic] 2023/1946: SnarkFold: Efficient SNARK Proof Aggregation from Split Incrementally Verifiable Computation

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SnarkFold: Efficient SNARK Proof Aggregation from Split Incrementally Verifiable Computation

Authors: Xun Liu, Shang Gao, Tianyu Zheng, Bin Xiao


The succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) technique is widely used in blockchain systems to replace the costly on-chain computation with the verification of a succinct proof. However, when dealing with multiple proofs, most existing applications require each proof to be independently verified, resulting in a heavy load on nodes and high transaction fees for users. To improve the efficiency of verifying multiple proofs, we introduce SnarkFold, a universal SNARK-proof aggregation scheme based on incrementally verifiable computation (IVC). Unlike previous proof aggregation approaches based on inner product arguments, which have a logarithmic proof size and verification cost, SnarkFold achieves constant verification time and proof size. One core technical advance in SnarkFold, of independent interest, is the ``split IVC’': rather than using one running instance to fold/accumulate the computation, we employ two (or more) running instances of different types in the recursive circuit to avoid transferring into the same structure. This distinguishing feature is particularly well-suited for proof aggregation scenarios, as constructing arithmetic circuits for pairings can be expensive. We further demonstrate how to fold Groth16 proofs with our SnarkFold. With some further optimizations, SnarkFold achieves the highest efficiency among all approaches.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1946

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