[Resource Topic] 2023/1929: Cryptography from Planted Graphs: Security with Logarithmic-Size Messages

Welcome to the resource topic for 2023/1929

Cryptography from Planted Graphs: Security with Logarithmic-Size Messages

Authors: Damiano Abram, Amos Beimel, Yuval Ishai, Eyal Kushilevitz, Varun Narayanan


We study the following broad question about cryptographic primitives: is it possible to achieve security against an arbitrary \mathsf{poly}(n)-time adversary with O(\log n)-size messages? It is common knowledge that the answer is ``no’’ unless information-theoretic security is possible. In this work, we revisit this question by considering the setting of cryptography with public information and computational security.

We obtain the following results, assuming variants of well-studied intractability assumptions:

  1. A private simultaneous messages (PSM) protocol for every f:[n]\times[n]\to\{0, 1\} requiring (1+\epsilon)\log n-bit messages for most functions and (2+\epsilon)\log n-bit messages for the remaining ones. We apply this towards non-interactive secure 3-party computation with similar message size in the preprocessing model, improving over previous 2-round protocols.

  2. A secret-sharing scheme for any ``forbidden-graph’’ access structure on n nodes with O(\log n) share size.

  3. On the negative side, we show that computational threshold secret-sharing schemes with public information require share size \Omega(\log \log n). For arbitrary access structures, we show that computational security does not help with 1-bit shares.

The above positive results guarantee that any adversary of size n^{o(\log n)} achieves an n^{-\Omega(1)} distinguishing advantage. We show how to make the advantage negligible by slightly increasing the asymptotic message size, still improving over all known constructions.
The security of our constructions is based on the conjectured hardness of variants of the planted clique problem, which was extensively studied in the algorithms, statistical inference, and complexity theory communities. Our work provides the first applications of such assumptions improving the efficiency of mainstream cryptographic primitives, gives evidence for the necessity of such assumptions, and suggests new questions in this domain that may be of independent interest.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1929

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