[Resource Topic] 2023/1768: Homomorphic Polynomial Public Key Cryptography for Quantum-secure Digital Signature

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Homomorphic Polynomial Public Key Cryptography for Quantum-secure Digital Signature

Authors: Randy Kuang, Maria Perepechaenko, Mahmoud Sayed, Dafu Lou


In their 2022 study, Kuang et al. introduced the Multivariable Polynomial Public Key (MPPK) cryptography, a quantum-safe public key cryptosystem leveraging the mutual inversion relationship between multiplication and division. MPPK employs multiplication for key pair construction and division for decryption, generating public multivariate polynomials. Kuang and Perepechaenko expanded the cryptosystem into the Homomorphic Polynomial Public Key (HPPK), transforming product polynomials over large hidden rings using homomorphic encryption through modular multiplications. Initially designed for key encapsulation mechanism (KEM), HPPK ensures security through homomorphic encryption of public polynomials over concealed rings. This paper extends its application to a digital signature scheme. The framework of HPPK KEM can not be directly applied to the digital signatures dues to the different nature of verification procedure compared to decryption procedure. Thus, in order to use the core ideas of the HPPK KEM scheme in the framework of digital signatures, the authors introduce an extension of the Barrett reduction algorithm. This extension transforms modular multiplications over hidden rings into divisions in the verification equation, conducted over a prime field. The extended algorithm non-linearly embeds the signature into public polynomial coefficients, employing the floor function of big integer divisions. This innovative approach overcomes vulnerabilities associated with linear relationships of earlier MPPK DS schemes. The security analysis reveals exponential complexity for both private key recovery and forged signature attacks, taking into account that the bit length of the rings is twice that of the prime field size. The effectiveness of the proposed Homomorphic Polynomial Public Key Digital Signature (HPPK DS) scheme is illustrated through a practical toy example, showcasing its intricate functionality and enhanced security features.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1768

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