[Resource Topic] 2023/1563: Formal Analysis of Non-profiled Deep-learning Based Side-channel Attacks

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Formal Analysis of Non-profiled Deep-learning Based Side-channel Attacks

Authors: Akira Ito, Rei Ueno, Rikuma Tanaka, Naofumi Homma


This paper formally analyzes two major non-profiled deep-learning-based side-channel attacks (DL-SCAs): differential deep-learning analysis (DDLA) by Timon and collision DL-SCA by Staib and Moradi. These DL-SCAs leverage supervised learning in non-profiled scenarios. Although some intuitive descriptions of these DL-SCAs exist, their formal analyses have been rarely conducted yet, which makes it unclear why and when the attacks succeed and how the attack can be improved. In this paper, we provide the first information-theoretical analysis of DDLA. We reveal its relevance to the mutual information analysis (MIA), and then present three theorems stating some limitations and impossibility results of DDLA. Subsequently, we provide the first probability-theoretical analysis on collision DL-SCA. After presenting its formalization with a proposal of our distinguisher for collision DL-SCA, we prove its optimality. Namely, we prove that the collision DL-SCA using our distinguisher theoretically maximizes the success rate if the neural network (NN) training is completely successful (namely, the NN completely imitates the true conditional probability distribution). Accordingly, we propose an improvement of the collision DL-SCA based on a dedicated NN architecture and a full-key recovery methodology using multiple neural distinguishers. Finally, we experimentally evaluate non-profiled (DL-)SCAs using a newly created dataset using publicly available first-order masked AES implementation. The existing public dataset of side-channel traces is insufficient to evaluate collision DL-SCAs due to a lack of substantive side-channel traces for different key values. Our dataset enables a comprehensive evaluation of collision (DL-)SCAs, which clarifies the current situation of non-profiled (DL-)SCAs.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1563

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