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**2023/1487**

**Title:**

A Novel Mathematical Formal Proof in Unreliability Protocol with XOR in Two’s Complement System

**Authors:**
Chenglian Liu, Sonia Chien-I Chen

**Abstract:**

Exclusive OR (XOR), a common Boolean logical operation, is an operation on two factors where the result is true if and only if one operand is true and the other is false. A simple way to state this is `one or the other, but not both''. Using this logical operation, a text string can be encrypted by applying the XOR operator to every character using a `

key’'. If you want to decrypt the output, simply reapply the key and the resulting output will be the original message.

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1487

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