[Resource Topic] 2023/1416: On Black-Box Knowledge-Sound Commit-And-Prove SNARKs

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On Black-Box Knowledge-Sound Commit-And-Prove SNARKs

Authors: Helger Lipmaa


Gentry and Wichs proved that adaptively sound SNARGs for hard languages need non-falsifiable assumptions. Lipmaa and Pavlyk claimed Gentry-Wichs is tight by constructing a non-adaptively sound zk-SNARG FANA for NP from falsifiable assumptions. We show that FANA is flawed. We define and construct a fully algebraic F-position-binding vector commitment scheme VCF. We construct a concretely efficient commit-and-prove zk-SNARK Punic, a version of FANA with an additional VCF commitment to the witness. Punic satisfies semi-adaptive black-box G-knowledge-soundness, a new natural knowledge-soundness notion for commit-and-prove SNARKs. We use a new proof technique to achieve global consistency using a functional somewhere-extractable commitment scheme to extract vector commitment’s local proofs.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1416

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