[Resource Topic] 2023/1388: Sigma Protocols from Verifiable Secret Sharing and Their Applications

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Sigma Protocols from Verifiable Secret Sharing and Their Applications

Authors: Min Zhang, Yu Chen, Chuanzhou Yao, Zhichao Wang


Sigma protocols are one of the most common and efficient zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs). Over the decades, a large number of Sigma protocols are proposed, yet few works pay attention to the common design principal. In this work, we propose a generic framework of Sigma protocols for algebraic statements from verifiable secret sharing (VSS) schemes. Our framework provides a general and unified approach to understanding Sigma protocols.
It not only neatly explains the classic protocols such as Schnorr, Guillou–Quisquater and Okamoto protocols, but also leads to new Sigma protocols that were not previously known.

Furthermore, we show an application of our framework in designing ZKPs for composite statements, which contain both algebraic and non-algebraic statements. We give a generic construction of non-interactive ZKPs for composite statements by combining Sigma protocols from VSS and ZKPs following MPC-in-the-head paradigm in a seamless way via a technique of \textit{witness sharing reusing}. Our construction has advantages of requiring no “glue” proofs for combining algebraic and non-algebraic statements. By instantiating our construction using Ligero++ (Bhadauria et al., CCS 2020) and designing an associated Sigma protocol from VSS, we obtain a concrete ZKP for composite statements which achieves a tradeoff between running time and proof size, thus resolving the open problem left by Backes et al. (PKC 2019).

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/1388

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