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Shining Light on the Shadow: Full-round Practical Distinguisher for Lightweight Block Cipher Shadow
Authors: Sunyeop Kim, Myoungsu Shin, Seonkyu Kim, Hanbeom Shin, Insung Kim, Donggeun Kwon, Dongjae Lee, Seonggyeom Kim, Deukjo Hong, Jaechul Sung, Seokhie HongAbstract:
Shadow is a lightweight block cipher proposed at IEEE IoT journal 2021. Shadow’s main design principle is adopting a variant 4- branch Feistel structure in order to provide a fast diffusion rate. We define such a structure as Shadow structure and prove that it is al- most identical to the Generalized Feistel Network, which invalidates the design principle. Moreover, we give a structural distinguisher that can distinguish Shadow structure from random permutation with only two plaintext/ciphertext pairs. By exploiting the key schedule, the distin- guisher can be extended to key recovery attack with only one plain- text/ciphertext pair. Furthermore, by considering Shadow’s round func- tion, only certain forms of monomials can appear in the ciphertext, re- sulting in an integral distinguisher of four plaintext/ciphertext pairs. Even more, the algebraic degree does not increase more than 12 for Shadow-32 and 20 for Shadow-64 regardless of rounds used. Our results show that Shadow is highly vulnerable to algebraic attacks, and that algebraic attacks should be carefully considered when designing ciphers with AND, rotation, and XOR operations.
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