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Byzantine Consensus under Fully Fluctuating Participation
Authors: Dahlia Malkhi, Atsuki Momose, Ling RenAbstract:
The longest-chain paradigm introduced by the Bitcoin protocol allows Byzantine consensus with fluctuating participation where nodes can spontaneously become active and inactive anytime. Since then, there have been several follow-up works that aim to achieve similar guarantees without Bitcoin’s computationally expensive proof of work. However, existing solutions do not fully inherit Bitcoin’s dynamic participation support. Specifically, they have to assume malicious nodes are always active, i.e., no late joining or leaving is allowed for malicious nodes, due to a problem known as costless simulation. Another problem of Bitcoin is its notoriously large latency. A series of works try to improve the latency while supporting dynamic participation. The work of Momose-Ren (CCS 2022) eventually achieved constant latency, but its concrete latency is still large. This work addresses both of these problems by presenting a protocol that has 3 round latency, tolerates one-third malicious nodes, and allows fully dynamic participation of both honest and malicious nodes. We also present a protocol with 2 round latency with slightly lower fault tolerance.
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