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Hybrid Dual Attack on LWE with Arbitrary Secrets
Authors: Lei Bi, Xianhui Lu, Junjie Luo, Kunpeng WangAbstract:
The Learning with Errors (LWE) problem is one of the most prominent problems in lattice-based cryptography. Many practical LWE-based schemes, including Fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE), use sparse ternary secret for the sake of efficiency. Several (hybrid) attacks have been proposed that benefit from such sparseness, thus researchers believe the security of the schemes with sparse ternary secrets is not well-understood yet. Recently, May [Crypto 2021] proposed an efficient meet-in-the-middle attack named Meet-LWE for LWE with ternary se- cret, which significantly improves Odlyzko’s algorithm. In this work, we generalize May’s Meet-LWE and then introduce a new hybrid attack which combines Meet-LWE with lattice dual attack. We implement our algorithm to FHE-type parameters of LWE problem and compare it with the previous hybrid dual attacks. The result shows that our attack outperforms other attacks in a large range of parameters. We note that our attack has no impact on the LWE-based schemes in the PQC Standardization held by NIST as their secrets are not sparse and/or ternary.
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