[Resource Topic] 2022/937: Post-quantum Plaintext-awareness

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Post-quantum Plaintext-awareness

Authors: Ehsan Ebrahimi and Jeroen van Wier


In this paper, we formalize the plaintext-awareness notion in the superposition access model in which a quantum adversary may implement the encryption oracle in a quantum device and make superposition queries to the decryption oracle. Due to various possible ways an adversary can access the decryption oracles, we present six security definitions to capture the plaintext-awareness notion with respect to each way of access. We study the relationships between these definitions and present various implications and non-implications. Classically, the strongest plaintext-awareness notion (PA2) accompanied by the indistinguishability under chosen-plaintext attack (IND-CPA) notion yields the indistinguishability under chosen-ciphertext attack (INDCCA) notion. We show that the PA2 notion is not sufficient to show the above relation when targeting the IND-qCCA notion (Boneh-Zhandry definition, Crypto 2013). However, our proposed post-quantum PA2 notion with superposition decryption queries fulfils this implication.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2022/937

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