[Resource Topic] 2022/768: Public-Key Watermarking Schemes for Pseudorandom Functions

Welcome to the resource topic for 2022/768

Public-Key Watermarking Schemes for Pseudorandom Functions

Authors: Rupeng Yang, Zuoxia Yu, Man Ho Au, and Willy Susilo


A software watermarking scheme can embed a message into a program while preserving its functionality. The embedded message can be extracted later by an extraction algorithm, and no one could remove it without significantly changing the functionality of the program. A watermarking scheme is public key if neither the marking procedure nor the extraction procedure needs a watermarking secret key. Prior constructions of watermarking schemes mainly focus on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs), and the major open problem in this direction is to construct a public-key watermarkable PRF. In this work, we solve the open problem via constructing public-key watermarkable PRFs with different trade-offs from various assumptions, ranging from standard lattice assumptions to the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation. To achieve the results, we first construct watermarking schemes in a weaker model, where the extraction algorithm is provided with a “hint” about the watermarked PRF key. Then we upgrade the constructions to standard watermarking schemes using a robust unobfuscatable PRF. We also provide the first construction of robust unobfuscatable PRF in this work, which is of independent interest.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2022/768

Talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQe2WKOqlho

Slides: https://iacr.org/submit/files/slides/2022/crypto/crypto2022/305/slides.pdf

See all topics related to this paper.

Feel free to post resources that are related to this paper below.

Example resources include: implementations, explanation materials, talks, slides, links to previous discussions on other websites.

For more information, see the rules for Resource Topics .