[Resource Topic] 2021/915: A PCP Theorem for Interactive Proofs and Applications

Welcome to the resource topic for 2021/915

A PCP Theorem for Interactive Proofs and Applications

Authors: Gal Arnon, Alessandro Chiesa, and Eylon Yogev


The celebrated PCP Theorem states that any language in NP can be decided via a verifier that reads O(1) bits from a polynomially long proof. Interactive oracle proofs (IOP), a generalization of PCPs, allow the verifier to interact with the prover for multiple rounds while reading a small number of bits from each prover message. While PCPs are relatively well understood, the power captured by IOPs (beyond NP) has yet to be fully explored. We present a generalization of the PCP theorem for interactive languages. We show that any language decidable by a k(n)-round IP has a k(n)-round public-coin IOP, where the verifier makes its decision by reading only O(1) bits from each (polynomially long) prover message and O(1) bits from each of its own (random) messages to the prover. Our result and the underlying techniques have several applications. We get a new hardness of approximation result for a stochastic satisfiability problem, we show IOP-to-IOP transformations that previously were known to hold only for IPs, and we formulate a new notion of PCPs (index-decodable PCPs) that enables us to obtain a commit-and-prove SNARK in the random oracle model for nondeterministic computations.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/915

Talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_9jHgO8kuI

Slides: https://iacr.org/submit/files/slides/2022/eurocrypt/eurocrypt2022/226/slides.pptx

See all topics related to this paper.

Feel free to post resources that are related to this paper below.

Example resources include: implementations, explanation materials, talks, slides, links to previous discussions on other websites.

For more information, see the rules for Resource Topics .