[Resource Topic] 2021/590: An Algebraic Framework for Universal and Updatable SNARKs

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An Algebraic Framework for Universal and Updatable SNARKs

Authors: Carla Ràfols, Arantxa Zapico


We introduce Checkable Subspace Sampling Arguments, a new information theoretic interactive proof system in which the prover shows that a vector has been sampled in a subspace according to the verifier’s coins. We show that this primitive provides a unifying view that explains the technical core of most of the constructions of universal and updatable pairing-based (zk)SNARKs. This characterization is extended to a fully algebraic framework for designing such SNARKs in a modular way. We propose new constructions of CSS arguments that lead to SNARKs with different performance trade-offs. Our most efficient construction, Basilisk, seems to have the smallest proof size in the literature, although it pays a price in terms of structure reference string for the number of multiplicative gates whose fan-out exceeds a certain bound.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/590

Talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZnL8CHYzSg

Slides: https://iacr.org/submit/files/slides/2021/crypto/crypto2021/403/slides.pdf

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