[Resource Topic] 2021/1355: Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4

Welcome to the resource topic for 2021/1355

Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4

Authors: Hwajeong Seo, Reza Azarderakhsh


Public key cryptography is widely used in key exchange and digital signature protocols. Public key cryptography requires expensive primitive operations, such as finite-field and group operations. These finite-field and group operations require a number of clock cycles to exe- cute. By carefully optimizing these primitive operations, public key cryp- tography can be performed with reasonably fast execution timing. In this paper, we present the new implementation result of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. We adopted state-of-art implementa- tion methods, and some previous methods were re-designed to fully uti- lize the features of the target microcontrollers. The implementation was also performed with constant timing by utilizing the features of micro- controllers and algorithms. Finally, the scalar multiplication of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4@168MHz microcontrollers requires 6,285,904 clock cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first optimized im- plementation of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. The result is also compared with other ECC and post-quantum cryptog- raphy (PQC) implementations. The proposed ECC and the-state-of-art PQC results show the practical usage of hybrid post-quantum TLS on the target processor.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/1355

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