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Dual-Mode NIZKs: Possibility and Impossibility Results for Property Transfer
Authors: Vivek Arte, Mihir BellareAbstract:
This paper formulates, and studies, the problem of property transference in dual-mode NIZKs. We say that a property P (such as soundness, ZK or WI) transfers, if, one of the modes having P allows us to prove that the other mode has the computational analogue of P, as a consequence of nothing but the indistinguishability of the CRSs in the two modes. Our most interesting finding is negative; we show by counter-example that the form of soundness that seems most important for applications fails to transfer. On the positive side, we develop a general framework that allows us to show that zero knowledge, witness indistinguishability, extractability and weaker forms of soundness do transfer. Our treatment covers conventional, designated-verifier and designated-prover NIZKs in a unified way.
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