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A secure end-to-end verifiable e-voting system using zero knowledge based blockchain
Authors: Somnath Panja, Bimal Kumar RoyAbstract:
In this paper, we present a cryptographic technique for an authenticated, end-to-end verifiable and secret ballot election. Voters should receive assurance that their vote is cast as intended, recorded as cast and tallied as recorded. The election system as a whole should ensure that voter coercion is unlikely, even when voters are willing to be influenced. Currently, almost all verifiable e-voting systems require trusted authorities to perform the tallying process. An exception is the DRE-i and DRE-ip system. The DRE-ip system removes the requirement of tallying authorities by encrypting ballot in such a way that the election tally can be publicly verified without decrypting cast ballots. However, the DRE-ip system necessitates a secure bulletin board (BB) for storing the encrypted ballot as without it the integrity of the system may be lost and the result can be compromised without detection during the audit phase. In this paper, we have modified the DRE-ip system so that if any recorded ballot is tampered by an adversary before the tallying phase, it will be detected during the tallying phase. In addition, we have described a method using zero knowledge based public blockchain to store these ballots so that it remains tamper proof. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first end-to-end verifiable Direct-recording electronic (DRE) based e-voting system using blockchain. In our case, we assume that the bulletin board is insecure and an adversary has read and write access to the bulletin board. We have also added a secure biometric with government provided identity card based authentication mechanism for voter authentication. The proposed system is able to encrypt ballot in such a way that the election tally can be publicly verified without decrypting cast ballots maintaining end-to-end verifiability and without requiring the secure bulletin board.
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