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Compact-LWE: Enabling Practically Lightweight Public Key Encryption for Leveled IoT Device Authentication
Authors: Dongxi Liu, Nan Li, Jongkil Kim, Surya NepalAbstract:
Leveled authentication allows resource-constrained IoT devices to be authenticated at different strength levels according to the particular types of communication. To achieve efficient leveled authentication, we propose a lightweight public key encryption scheme that can produce very short ciphertexts without sacrificing its security. The security of our scheme is based on the Learning With Secretly Scaled Errors in Dense Lattice (referred to as Compact-LWE) problem. We prove the hardness of Compact-LWE by reducing Learning With Errors (LWE) to Compact-LWE. However, unlike LWE, even if the closest vector problem (CVP) in lattices can be solved, Compact-LWE is still hard, due to the high density of lattices constructed from Compact-LWE samples and the relatively longer error vectors. By using a lattice-based attack tool, we verify that the attacks, which are successful on LWE instantly, cannot succeed on Compact-LWE, even for a small dimension parameter like n=13, hence allowing small dimensions for short ciphertexts. On the Contiki operating system for IoT, we have implemented our scheme, with which a leveled Needham-Schroeder-Lowe public key authentication protocol is implemented. On a small IoT device with 8MHZ MSP430 16-bit processor and 10KB RAM, our experiment shows that our scheme can complete 50 encryptions and 500 decryptions per second at a security level above 128 bits, with a public key of 2368 bits, generating 176-bit ciphertexts for 16-bit messages. With two small IoT devices communicating over IEEE 802.15.4 and 6LoWPAN, the total time of completing an authentication varies from 640ms (the 1st authentication level) to 8373ms (the 16th authentication level), in which the execution of our encryption scheme takes only a very small faction from 46ms to 445ms.
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