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Construction and Filtration of Lightweight Formalized MDS Matrices
Authors: Shiyi Zhang, Yongjuan Wang, Yang Gao, Tao WangAbstract:
The 4x4 MDS matrix over F2 is widely used in the design of block cipher’s linear diffusion layers. However, considering the cost of a lightweight cipher’s implementation, the sum of XOR operations of a MDS matrix usually plays the role of measure. During the research on the construction of the lightweight 4x4 MDS matrices, this paper presents the concept of formalized MDS matrix: some of the entries that make up the matrix are known, and their positions are determined, and the criterions of the MDS matrix is satisfied. In this paper, using the period and minimal polynomial theory of entries over finite fields, a new construction method of formalized MDS matrices is proposed. A large number of MDS matrices can be obtained efficiently by this method, and their number distribution has significant structural features. However, the algebraic structure of the lightest MDS matrices is also obvious. This paper firstly investigates the construction of 4x4 lightweight MDS matrices, analyzes the distribution characteristics of the them, and the feasibility of the construction method. Then, for the lightest MDS matrices obtained from the method above, the algebraic relations in themselves and between each other are studied, and the important application of the alternating group A4 and it’s subgroup, the Klein four-group is found.
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