[Resource Topic] 2014/555: General Statistically Secure Computation with Bounded-Resettable Hardware Tokens

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General Statistically Secure Computation with Bounded-Resettable Hardware Tokens

Authors: Nico Döttling, Daniel Kraschewski, Jörn Müller-Quade, Tobias Nilges


Universally composable secure computation was assumed to require trusted setups, until it was realized that parties exchanging (untrusted) tamper-proof hardware tokens allow an alternative approach (Katz; EUROCRYPT 2007). This discovery initialized a line of research dealing with two different types of tokens. Using only a single stateful token, one can implement general statistically secure two-party computation (Döttling, Kraschewski, Müller-Quade; TCC 2011); though all security is lost if an adversarial token receiver manages to physically reset and rerun the token. Stateless tokens, which are secure by definition against any such resetting-attacks, however, do provably not suffice for arbitrary secure computations (Goyal, Ishai, Mahmoody, Sahai; CRYPTO 2010). We investigate the natural question of what is possible if an adversary can reset a token at most a bounded number of times (e.g., because each resetting attempt imposes a significant risk to trigger a self-destruction mechanism of the token). Somewhat surprisingly, our results come close to the known positive results with respect to non-resettable stateful tokens. In particular, we construct polynomially many instances of statistically secure and universally composable oblivious transfer, using only a constant number of tokens. Our techniques have some abstract similarities to previous solutions, which we grasp by defining a new security property for protocols that use oracle access. Additionally, we apply our techniques to zero-knowledge proofs and obtain a protocol that achieves the same properties as bounded-query zero-knowledge PCPs (Kilian, Petrank, Tardos; STOC 1997), even if a malicious prover may issue stateful PCP oracles.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/555

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