[Resource Topic] 2006/039: Two-Round AES Differentials

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Two-Round AES Differentials

Authors: Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen


In this paper we study the probability of differentials and
characteristics over 2 rounds of the AES with the objective to
understand how the components of the AES round transformation
We extend and correct the analysis of the differential properties
of the multiplicative inverse in GF(2^n). We show that AES has characteristics with a
fixed-key probability that is many times larger than the EDP. For
instance, in the case of 2-round AES, we measured factors up to
We study the number of characteristics with EDP >0 whose
probability adds up to the probability of a differential and
derive formulas that allow to produce a close estimate of this
number for any differential. We show how the properties discovered
in our study can be used to explain the values of the
differentials with the largest EDP values and to construct new
distinguishers using truncated differentials.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2006/039

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