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Fuzzy Identity Based Encryption
Authors: Amit Sahai, Brent WatersAbstract:
We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption
(IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption.
In Fuzzy IBE we view an identity as set of descriptive attributes.
A Fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity, \omega, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, \omega', if
and only if the identities \omega and \omega' are close to each
other as measured by the
set overlap'' distance metric. A Fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a Fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that Fuzzy-IBE can be used for a type of application that we term attribute-based encryption’'.
In this paper we present two constructions of Fuzzy IBE schemes. Our
constructions can be viewed as an Identity-Based Encryption of a
message under several attributes that compose a (fuzzy) identity.
Our IBE schemes are both error-tolerant and secure against collusion
attacks. Additionally, our basic construction does not use random
oracles. We prove the security of our schemes under the Selective-ID
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