[Resource Topic] 2002/027: Efficient and Non-Malleable Proofs of Plaintext Knowledge and Applications

Welcome to the resource topic for 2002/027

Efficient and Non-Malleable Proofs of Plaintext Knowledge and Applications

Authors: Jonathan Katz


We describe very efficient protocols for non-malleable (interactive)
proofs of plaintext knowledge for the RSA, Rabin, Paillier, and
El-Gamal encryption schemes whose security can be proven in the
standard model. We also highlight some important applications of
these protocols, where we take care to ensure that our protocols
remain secure when run in an asynchronous, concurrent environment:

— Chosen-ciphertext-secure, interactive encryption: In some settings
where both parties are on-line (e.g., SSL), an interactive encryption
protocol may be used. We construct chosen-ciphertext-secure interactive
encryption schemes based on any of the schemes above. In each case,
the improved scheme requires only a small overhead beyond the original,
semantically-secure scheme.

— Password-based authenticated key exchange: We provide efficient
protocols for password-based authenticated key exchange in the public-
key model \cite{HK98,B99}. Security of our protocols may be based on
any of the cryptosystems mentioned above.

— Deniable authentication: We demonstrate deniable authentication
protocols satisfying the strongest notion of security. These are the
first efficient constructions based on, e.g., the RSA or computational Diffie-Hellman assumptions.

Our techniques provide a general methodology for constructing efficient
\emph{non-malleable} (zero-knowledge) proofs of knowledge when shared
parameters are available (for our intended applications, these
parameters can simply be included as part of users’ public keys). Thus,
non-malleable proofs of knowledge are easy to achieve ``in practice’'.

ePrint: https://eprint.iacr.org/2002/027

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