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Black-Box Concurrent Zero-Knowledge Requires \tilde\Omega(\log n) Rounds
Authors: Ran Canetti, Joe Kilian, Erez Petrank, Alon RosenAbstract:
We show that any concurrent zero-knowledge protocol for a non-trivial
language (i.e., for a language outside \BPP), whose security is
proven via black-box simulation, must use at least
\tilde\Omega(\log n) rounds of interaction. This result achieves a
substantial improvement over previous lower bounds, and is the first
bound to rule out the possibility of constant-round concurrent
zero-knowledge when proven via black-box simulation. Furthermore, the
bound is polynomially related to the number of rounds in the best
known concurrent zero-knowledge protocol for languages in \NP.
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