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Interleaved Zero-Knowledge in the Public-Key Model
Authors: Oded Goldreich, Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio MicaliAbstract:
We introduce the notion of Interleaved Zero-Knowledge (iZK), a new
security measure for cryptographic protocols which strengthens
the classical notion of zero-knowledge, in a way suitable for
multiple concurrent executions in an asynchronous environment
like the internet. We prove that iZK protocols are robust:
they are ``parallelizable’', and preserve security when run
concurrently in a fully asynchronous network. Furthermore,
this holds even if the prover’s random-pads in all these
concurrent invocations are identical. Thus, iZK protocols are
ideal for smart-cards and other devices which cannot reliably
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