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DHAES: An Encryption Scheme Based on the Diffie-Hellman Problem
Authors: Michel Abdalla, Mihir Bellare, Phillip RogawayAbstract:
scheme, DHAES. The scheme is as efficient as ElGamal encryption, but has
stronger security properties. Furthermore, these security properties are proven
to hold under appropriate assumptions on the underlying primitive.
We show that DHAES has not only the ``basic’’ property of secure encryption
(namely privacy under a chosen-plaintext attack) but also achieves privacy
under both non-adaptive and adaptive chosen-ciphertext attacks. (And hence
it also achieves non-malleability.)
DHAES is built in a generic way from lower-level primitives: a symmetric
encryption scheme, a message authentication code, group operations in an
arbitrary group, and a cryptographic hash function. In particular, the
underlying group may be an elliptic-curve group or the multiplicative
group of integers modulo a prime number.
The proofs of security are based on appropriate assumptions about the
hardness of the Diffie-Hellman problem and the assumption that the
underlying symmetric primitives are secure. The assumptions are
all standard in the sense that no random oracles are involved.
We suggest that DHAES provides an attractive starting point for developing
public-key encryption standards based on the Diffie-Hellman assumption.
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