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**1998/021**

**Title:**

Relations among Notions of Security for Public-Key Encryption Schemes

**Authors:**
Mihir Bellare, Anand Desai, David Pointcheval, Phillip Rogaway

**Abstract:**

We compare the relative strengths of popular notions of security for

public key encryption schemes. We consider the goals of

indistinguishability and non-malleability, each under chosen plaintext

attack and two kinds of chosen ciphertext attack. For each of the

resulting pairs of definitions we prove either an implication (every

scheme meeting one notion must meet the other) or a separation (there

is a scheme meeting one notion but not the other, assuming the first

notion can be met at all). We similarly treat plaintext awareness, a

notion of security in the random oracle model. An additional

contribution of this paper is a new definition of non-malleability

which we believe is simpler than the previous one.

**ePrint:**
https://eprint.iacr.org/1998/021

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