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Compact Lattice Gadget and Its Applications to Hash-and-Sign Signatures
Authors: Yang Yu, Huiwen Jia, Xiaoyun WangAbstract:
Lattice gadgets and the associated algorithms are the essential building blocks of lattice-based cryptography. In the past decade, they have been applied to build versatile and powerful cryptosystems. However, the practical optimizations and designs of gadget-based schemes generally lag their theoretical constructions.
For example, the gadget-based signatures have elegant design and capability of extending to more advanced primitives, but they are far less efficient than other lattice-based signatures.
This work aims to improve the practicality of gadget-based cryptosystems, with a focus on hash-and-sign signatures. To this end, we develop a compact gadget framework in which the used gadget is a square matrix instead of the short and fat one used in previous constructions. To work with this compact gadget, we devise a specialized gadget sampler, called semi-random sampler, to compute the approximate preimage. It first deterministically computes the error and then randomly samples the preimage. We show that for uniformly random targets, the preimage and error distributions are simulatable without knowing the trapdoor. This ensures the security of the signature applications. Compared to the Gaussian-distributed errors in previous algorithms, the deterministic errors have a smaller size, which lead to a substantial gain in security and enables a practically working instantiation.
As the applications, we present two practically efficient gadget-based signature schemes based on NTRU and Ring-LWE respectively. The NTRU-based scheme offers comparable efficiency to Falcon and Mitaka and a simple implementation without the need of generating the NTRU trapdoor. The LWE-based scheme also achieves a desirable overall performance. It not only greatly outperforms the state-of-the-art LWE-based hash-and-sign signatures, but also has an even smaller size than the LWE-based Fiat-Shamir signature scheme Dilithium. These results fill the long-term gap in practical gadget-based signatures.
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