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An n/2 byzantine node tolerated blockchain sharding approach
Authors: Yibin Xu, Yangyu HuangAbstract:
Traditional Blockchain Sharding approaches can only tolerate up to n/3 of nodes being adversary because they rely on the hypergeometric distribution to make a failure (an adversary does not have n/3 of nodes globally but can manipulate the consensus of a Shard) hard to happen. The system must maintain a large Shard size (the number of nodes inside a Shard) to sustain the low failure probability so that only a small number of Shards may exist. In this paper, we present a new approach of Blockchain Sharding that can withstand up to n/2 of nodes being bad. We categorise the nodes into different classes, and every Shard has a fixed number of nodes from different classes. We prove that this design is much more secure than the traditional models (only have one class) and the Shard size can be reduced significantly. In this way, many more Shards can exist, and the transaction throughput can be largely increased. The improved Blockchain Sharding approach is promising to serve as the foundation for decentralised autonomous organisations and decentralised database.
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